Before Mark Dever became a pastor he did his PhD work in historical theology at the University of Cambridge. In 2007, with the resurgence of evangelical Calvinism, he did a series of 10 blog posts that combined his historical gifting with his insider look at the roots (under God) of what has been happening and why.

Of course, theologically, the answer is “because of the sovereignty of God.”  But I’ve never been convinced by hyper-Calvinism’s argument that because God has determined the ends, the means don’t matter.  Means do matter.  And as a Christian, as an historian who had lived through the very change I was considering, I wondered what factors had been used by God.

The whole series is worth rereading for those who are interested in this kind of thing. I’ve provided a table of contents below, with the title of his conclusions as the title:
  1. Charles H. Spurgeon
  2. D. Martyn Lloyd-Jones
  3. The Banner of Truth Trust
  4. Evangelism Explosion
  5. The inerrancy controversy
  6. Presbyterian Church in America (PCA)
  7. J. I. Packer
  8. John MacArthur and R. C. Sproul
  9. John Piper
  10. The rise of secularism and decline of Christian nominalism

Some additional pieces worth reading:

If Dever’s list were ongoing and updated, I would also add the following factors (focusing on the American context):