Editors' Note: "When you sell a man a book you don't sell him just 12 ounces of paper and ink and glue," novelist Christopher Morley said, "you sell him a whole new life." During the past 50 years more books have been sold than in any other time in history. So what type of life---or, as Abraham Kuyper would say, world-and-life view---are we buying?
As a partial answer to that question, we've asked several Christian thinkers to examine the worldviews presented in the top 10 most-read books.
Previously in this series:
- Louis Markos on Reading for Worldviews
- Douglas Wilson on The Lord of the Rings
- Micah Mattix on The Alchemist
- Tim Kimberley on The Diary of Anne Frank
- Jared Bridges on The Da Vinci Code
I spend a lot of time in taxis in Beijing, and since I am a blondish, big-nosed foreigner who speaks Chinese, many drivers are eager to chat. They want to know what work I do and how much money I make. When I tell them that I am an educator and don't make much money, they wonder what in the world I am doing here. Since most drivers are in their 40s or 50s and grew up studying the Quotations of Chairman Mao I reply in my best slogan voice, "I came to serve the people!" The response is always greeted with laughter, sometimes heartfelt, sometimes a bit nervous, because they all immediately recognize it as one of the sayings of Chairman Mao that they had to memorize when they were young.
"We should be modest and prudent, guard against arrogance and rashness, and serve the Chinese people heart and soul. . . ."
That this one piece of one quote ("serve the Chinese people heart and soul") is pretty much the only quotation that still gets any play in China today says something of the lasting effect (or lack thereof) of Quotations of Chairman Mao. The book has slipped out of the life of the nation; so much so in fact, that I am having a hard time knowing if I should be writing about it in the present tense or past tense.
Bible of Maoism
To be honest, the book's inclusion on the list should probably come with an asterisk. It is easy to become the second "most read" book in the history of the world when failure to own a copy or carry it at all times could lead to beatings or even imprisonment.
It's also easy to land on the list when, for the period of time it was "on the market" (I use scare quotes because there was no such thing as a market in China then), it was, for all practical purposes, the only book on the market. The chart indicates 800 million copies were sold. Since this was at a time when China's population was growing from 500 million to 800 million, it could be argued that everyone in China owned a copy.
It is interesting to note that the only book that has sold more copies is the Bible. Even though the Communist Party was (and is) atheist, the devotion to and influence of the Quotations took on a religious flavor; it became, in effect the Bible of Maoism. This aspect of the book is most evident in the old images of thousands of rapturous-faced youth waving the book in Tiananmen Square or at other mass gatherings around China during the 1960s.
Vehicle for Mao Ze-dong Thought
To understand the effect of this book, it is important to understand what the book is and who actually wrote it. In the West it has come to be known as "Mao's Little Red Book," but the real title is Quotations of Chairman Mao. It is not really a book written by Mao Ze-dong, the supreme leader of China and the Chinese Communist Party until his death in 1979; rather, it is merely a collection of selected quotations taken from his speeches and essays.
The first edition of the book, published in 1964, was for internal distribution within the People's Liberation Army (PLA), not for the masses. Lin Biao, head of the army, believed that a collection of short, pithy, easily memorized quotes would be an effective way to inculcate uneducated soldiers with Mao's (and thus the Party's) guiding philosophy. This is the reason why many of the quotations themselves pre-date the founding of the People's Republic of China (October 1, 1949) and have a distinctly militaristic tone about them. The initial readers were soldiers fighting a revolutionary war.
When the Cultural Revolution got underway, the Party decided to distribute the book to the masses. With its official publication in 1966, Quotations became the main vehicle for teaching "Mao Ze-dong Thought" to the people and the centerpiece of the cult of personality built up around Chairman Mao. As it says in the book's introduction:
In our great motherland, a new era is emerging in which the workers, peasants, and soldiers are grasping Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong's thought. Once Mao Zedong's thought is grasped by the broad masses, it becomes an inexhaustible source of strength and a spiritual atom bomb of infinite power. The large-scale publication of Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong is a vital measure for enabling the broad masses to grasp Mao Zedong's thought and for promoting the revolutionization of our people's thinking.
At the height of the Cultural Revolution, no one was exempt from reading and studying the book. Students in school did not study math or science or language or history; they spent their days studying these quotations. Factory workers didn't build things; they spent their days memorizing these quotations. Office workers didn't do anything besides study, and peasants, after long days in the fields, had to spend evenings memorizing as well.
A Revolution Is Not a Dinner Party
At the heart of Mao Ze-dong Thought was the notion of struggle, so the violence of the political campaigns of the early years and the Cultural Revolution should not surprise us. The Communist Party had been victorious in their war against the Nationalists. Once the nation was established in 1949, the same tactics that had led to victory were now employed to root out and defeat enemies still lurking within Chinese society: capitalism, the bourgeoisie, religion, and so on.
Entire chapters of the collection are devoted to quotations on struggle and revolution. This is perhaps the most famous of all:
A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained, and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.
Emphasis was always on the destruction of the old and the building of the new. Old China (backwards) was to be replaced with New China (modern). An old system (feudalism) was to be replaced with a new system (socialism). Old beliefs (religions) were to be replaced with new beliefs (Mao Ze-dong Thought). And finally, taking on spiritual terminology that is familiar to Christians, the old man (selfish) was to be replaced with a new man (selfless). All of this would be done by submitting to the will of Mao (as expressed through the Party), who alone had the power to forgive and sanctify. "If you confess your sins Mao (the Party) is faithful and just in forgiving your sins." Through the influence of this book Mao Ze-dong Thought became a religion, and Mao became a god to be worshiped.
From Holy Writ to Tourist Kitsch
In 1979, Chairman Mao died, and a new leader, Deng Xiaoping, came to power. Having twice been purged by Mao, he had experienced the violence of the Cultural Revolution on a personal level. He also inherited a country on the brink of exhaustion and collapse (both economically and psychologically) as a result of the excesses of Maoism. He set about dismantling the cult of personality that had been built up around Mao. At the very least, that meant removing Quotations from circulation. The same Party and government that had mandated the purchase and study of the book as Holy Writ now asked the people to turn them in. Once collected, they were destroyed. Today the only copies available are the English versions that were published in 1993 to be sold to foreign tourists.
That this nation could live under such an ideology for so long and emerge to rebuild is a testimony to God's grace, and that applies especially to the church. In the struggle to rid Chinese society of all competing ideologies, all religious activities were banned, and the Chinese church went underground. When things began to change in the late 1970s and early 1980s it became apparent that the church had not been defeated; in fact, it had grown. That explosive growth continues today.
Some Chinese Christian friends of mine have suggested that one of the effects of Maoism, as propagated by the Quotations, was to lay the groundwork for the revival that we see in China today. Maoism stripped away many of the traditional beliefs from Chinese culture, leaving a deep spiritual hunger and an unprecedented openness to the gospel.
God does indeed move in mysterious ways.