Over the years Mark Dever, senior pastor of Capitol Hill Baptist Church in Washington, D.C., has seen plenty of opportunities to accrue authority, some of which he keeps, many of which he passes out. And the way he passes out authority has shaped the culture of our church in countless ways. Here are 20 ways he distributes authority, followed by 10 ways this shapes our church culture. Some apply just to lead pastors; many apply to all of us.

Ways to Distribute Authority

1. Build the church on the gospel. No matter who's teaching, the gospel must be front and center. Mark has established this pattern. When relationships and power structures are grounded in the gospel, people use their authority not to lord it over one another, but to serve one another (Matt. 20:25-28).

2. Establish a plurality of staff and non-staff elders. On an elder board composed exclusively of staff elders, each man may possess one vote, but the staffing structure imposes a hierarchy. Adding non-staff elders to the board disrupts and flattens that hierarchy.

3. Limit the percentage of main-slot preaching. Mark, with the elders' agreement, limits himself to preaching 50 percent to 65 percent of Sunday mornings. That way, other voices have the chance to grow and gain authority. And the congregation depends more on the Word than on one man.

4. Create many other opportunities to teach. Our church has about 80 teaching slots for adult Sunday school classes over the course of the year (each slot consists of a 7- to 13-week class), as well as 52 chances to preach a Sunday evening devotional, as well as a couple dozen chances to teach a Wednesday night Bible study. All told, there are around 150 chances for other men to teach the congregation, and I haven't even mentioned small groups. When men prove proficient in teaching, they accrue authority.

5. Seldom (or never) preach the Sunday evening service. Mark never preaches in our church's Sunday evening service. Instead the church hears from an elder or a would-be elder.

6. Give young teachers the chance to make mistakes. I can think of one or two instances where a teacher or preacher said something so inappropriate that he wasn't asked to teach again. But generally speaking, young teachers have a lot of leeway in our church to be boring and to make mistakes. Since the church depends more on the Word than on Mark, they have much patience for the young men.

7. Let others steal your ideas. Mark freely lets other teachers inside the church adapt his anecdotes, borrow his best lines, and mimic his messages.

8. Be willing to lose elder votes. I've heard of other senior pastors who "never lose votes." When that's the case, you almost might as well get rid of your elders. Talk about undermining their leadership!

9. Be slow to speak and speak sparingly in elders' meetings. Three times a year, the elders welcome a number of pastors from other churches to observe our meetings. These pastors often mention their surprise at how little Mark speaks, and how willing other elders are to disagree with him.

10. Don't be the chairman in elders' meetings or members' meetings. Giving another man the chance to be the chairman who both sets the agenda and also leads the meeting is an easy way to distribute authority.

11. Let other elders lead the congregation through difficult issues in members' meetings. When it comes to leading the church through discipline cases, big financial decisions, or other tough topics, the elder who's been most involved may be the best one to lead the church publicly.

12. Use an "invitations committee." If you're a pastor who receives regular invitations to speak outside your church, use a committee of staff members and/or elders to help you review those invitations. And be willing to let them guide and even determine the decision.

13. Be devoted to one thing in the church and give freedom elsewhere. Mark is largely devoted to preparing sermons and keeps a loose grip on most everything else. So if you want to see the church doing more in some area, he'll let you do it and keep his hands off. This process "outs" other natural leaders.

14. Don't micromanage. There are a few areas Mark micromanages, like making sure his staff are present at meetings and services on time. But in just about everything else, he gives free rein. Micromanagement not only exhausts a leader, it also undermines the initiative of others.

15. Review weekly services. Structuring a time into a church leadership's weekly schedule for giving and receiving feedback over Sunday's services teaches men to evaluate, to think, and to love the congregation better. It grows them as leaders. Plus . . .

16. Be willing to receive criticism. Mark sets the example by inviting criticism. This gives other would-be leaders room to spread their wings. If you never invite criticism, you're teaching everyone around you that they must conform to your preferences or be punished. Leaders don't grow in this kind of environment. They whither or leave.

17. Invite lay elders to give feedback on services. Mark doesn't require lay elders to attend the weekly service review times, but he always invites them to attend and give feedback.

18. Pray for other churches and other denominations. Publicly praying for other churches and denominations helps to defeat tribalism and focuses us on the gospel instead of the church leader. This prayer in turn engenders further gospel initiative among other budding leaders in the church.

19. Be quick to forgive. Mark is one of the most quickly forgiving people I know. Alternatively, it's hard for a fault-finder to give away authority. If you only see faults, you won't trust or entrust. But if you're quick to forgive, you'll find it easier to entrust and empower others.

20. Rejoice in the victories of others. Do you have to be the one to make the shot, or are you happy to make the assist? Mark rejoices in the victories of others as much as his own. If someone else can do the job, he would prefer it. This leaves him free to do something else.

How Giving Away Authority Shapes a Church Culture

When the leader "on top" is characterized by generously giving authority to his lay elders and others in the church, he shapes the church's culture in wonderful ways.

1. It helps to keep the gospel uppermost. Giving away authority focuses the church's eyes on their gospel purposes rather than on the leader.

2. It promotes "real" relationships. In an environment where authority is jealously guarded, relationships are characterized by politics and strategy. Guards remain up, vulnerabilities aren't exposed, and transparency diminishes. But when people feel empowered they're more likely to be open and honest.

3. It keeps a church from being tribalistic. A man who continually gives away authority teaches those around him that he's most interested in the success of the gospel, regardless of who's leading (see Phil. 1:12ff).

4. It encourages church members to share resources. When I see the leader is not out for himself, I too become inclined to give to others.

5. It destroys natural social hierarchies. Our church is filled with people with "impressive" jobs, the kind that create social hierarchies. So it's striking that members interact as equals. Why? Because the gospel is kept in the center. We're all sinners saved by grace. Also, Mark doesn't use any of his stature to lord it over others. This sets a pattern.

6. It cultivates trust. When I see the leader isn't out for himself, it's easier to trust his motives, even when he's asking me to make a sacrifice.

7. It cultivates teachability and the willingness to receive criticism. Again, if I trust the man, I become more willing to listen to his criticisms of me. I trust they're rooted in love rather than oneupmanship.

8. It promotes a willingness to forgive. When the leader is quick to forgive others' faults, he'll be more willing to entrust others with authority. That in turn will help others to do the same.

9. It encourages the church to be training-minded. A church that sees a pastor continually work to train and empower others will have a hard time not catching the vision and sharing it. They will see all the fruit.

10. It helps a church to be outward focused. The process of raising up and sending out leaders helps a church realize its goal isn't just to make our own house the best it can be, but to help other houses become happier and healthier, too.

At the same time, delegation can be done poorly or lazily. Wisdom is required to delegate well. I've heard Mark say he assumes God has given everyone some instrument in the orchestra to play, and part of his job is helping people figure out which instrument is theirs.

The question comes down to heart posture: are we happy to see others gain authority, or do we jealously guard it, afraid people might surpass us? If the former, what are we doing to spread it?

Editors' note: This article originally appeared on the 9Marks website.

Jonathan Leeman is a member of Capitol Hill Baptist Church in Washington, D.C., editorial director of 9Marks, and author of The Church and the Surprising Offense of God’s Love, Reverberation, Church Membership, and Church Discipline. His PhD work is in the area of political theology. You can follow him on Twitter.

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